Linux Server Professional Certification LPIC-1

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Linux Server Professional Certification LPIC-1

LPIC-1 LPI’s Multi-level Linux Professional, programın ilk sertifikasyonudur. LPIC-1, komut satırı ile bakım görevlerini gerçekleştirmek, yüklemek ve Linux çalıştıran bir bilgisayarı ve temel ağ yapılandırma yeteneğini doğrular.

Sertifikasyon İçin Geçilmesi Gereken Sınavlar: 101 ve 102 

LPIC-1 Exam 101

Topic 101: System Architecture
101.1 Determine and configure hardware settings

• Enable and disable integrated peripherals
• Configure systems with or without external peripherals such as keyboards
• Differentiate between the various types of mass storage devices
• Know the differences between coldplug and hotplug devices
• Determine hardware resources for devices
• Tools and utilities to list various hardware information (e.g. lsusb, lspci, etc.)
• Tools and utilities to manipulate USB devices
• Conceptual understanding of sysfs, udev, dbus

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

• /sys/
• /proc/
• /dev/
• modprobe
• lsmod
• lspci
• lsusb

101.2 Boot the system

• Provide common commands to the boot loader and options to the kernel at boot time
• Demonstrate knowledge of the boot sequence from BIOS to boot completion
• Understanding of SysVinit and systemd
• Awareness of Upstart
• Check boot events in the log files

Terms and Utilities:

• dmesg
• BIOS
• bootloader
• kernel
• initramfs
• init
• SysVinit
• systemd

101.3 Change runlevels / boot targets and shutdown or reboot system

• Set the default runlevel or boot target
• Change between runlevels / boot targets including single user mode
• Shutdown and reboot from the command line
• Alert users before switching runlevels / boot targets or other major system events
• Properly terminate processes

Terms and Utilities:

• /etc/inittab
• shutdown
• init
• /etc/init.d/
• telinit
• systemd
• systemctl
• /etc/systemd/
• /usr/lib/systemd/
• wall

Topic 102: Linux Installation and Package Management
102.1 Design hard disk layout

• Allocate filesystems and swap space to separate partitions or disks
• Tailor the design to the intended use of the system
• Ensure the /boot partition conforms to the hardware architecture requirements for booting
• Knowledge of basic features of LVM

Terms and Utilities:

• / (root) filesystem
• /var filesystem
• /home filesystem
• /boot filesystem
• swap space
• mount points
• partitions

102.2 Install a boot manager

• Providing alternative boot locations and backup boot options
• Install and configure a boot loader such as GRUB Legacy
• Perform basic configuration changes for GRUB 2
• Interact with the boot loader

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

• menu.lst, grub.cfg and grub.conf
• grub-install
• grub-mkconfig
• MBR

102.3 Manage shared libraries

• Identify shared libraries
• Identify the typical locations of system libraries
• Load shared libraries

Terms and Utilities:

• ldd
• ldconfig
• /etc/ld.so.conf
• LD_LIBRARY_PATH

102.4 Use Debian package management

• Install, upgrade and uninstall Debian binary packages
• Find packages containing specific files or libraries which may or may not be installed
• Obtain package information like version, content, dependencies, package integrity and installation status (whether or not the package is installed)

Terms and Utilities:

• /etc/apt/sources.list
• dpkg
• dpkg-reconfigure
• apt-get
• apt-cache
• aptitude
102.5 Use RPM and YUM package management

• Install, re-install, upgrade and remove packages using RPM and YUM
• Obtain information on RPM packages such as version, status, dependencies, integrity and signatures
• Determine what files a package provides, as well as find which package a specific file comes from

Terms and Utilities:

• rpm
• rpm2cpio
• /etc/yum.conf
• /etc/yum.repos.d/
• yum
• yumdownloader

Topic 103: GNU and Unix Commands
103.1 Work on the command line

• Use single shell commands and one line command sequences to perform basic tasks on the command line
• Use and modify the shell environment including defining, referencing and exporting environment variables
• Use and edit command history
• Invoke commands inside and outside the defined path

Terms and Utilities:

• bash
• echo
• env
• export
• pwd
• set
• unset
• man
• uname
• history
• .bash_history

103.2 Process text streams using filters

• Send text files and output streams through text utility filters to modify the output using standard UNIX commands found in the GNU textutils package

Terms and Utilities:

• cat
• cut
• expand
• fmt
• head
• join
• less
• nl
• od
• paste
• pr
• sed
• sort
• split
• tail
• tr
• unexpand
• uniq
• wc

103.3 Perform basic file management

• Copy, move and remove files and directories individually
• Copy multiple files and directories recursively
• Remove files and directories recursively
• Use simple and advanced wildcard specifications in commands
• Using find to locate and act on files based on type, size, or time
• Usage of tar, cpio and dd

Terms and Utilities:

• cp
• find
• mkdir
• mv
• ls
• rm
• rmdir
• touch
• tar
• cpio
• dd
• file
• gzip
• gunzip
• bzip2
• xz
• file globbing

103.4 Use streams, pipes and redirects

• Redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error
• Pipe the output of one command to the input of another command
• Use the output of one command as arguments to another command
• Send output to both stdout and a file

Terms and Utilities:

• tee
• xargs

103.5 Create, monitor and kill processes

• Run jobs in the foreground and background
• Signal a program to continue running after logout
• Monitor active processes
• Select and sort processes for display
• Send signals to processes

Terms and Utilities:

• &
• bg
• fg
• jobs
• kill
• nohup
• ps
• top
• free
• uptime
• pgrep
• pkill
• killall
• screen

103.6 Modify process execution priorities

• Know the default priority of a job that is created
• Run a program with higher or lower priority than the default
• Change the priority of a running process

Terms and Utilities:

• nice
• ps
• renice
• top

103.7 Search text files using regular expressions

• Create simple regular expressions containing several notational elements
• Use regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content

Terms and Utilities:

• grep
• egrep
• fgrep
• sed
• regex(7)

103.8 Perform basic file editing operations using vi

• Navigate a document using vi
• Use basic vi modes
• Insert, edit, delete, copy and find text

Terms and Utilities:

• vi
• /, ?
• h,j,k,l
• i, o, a
• c, d, p, y, dd, yy
• ZZ, :w!, :q!, :e!

Topic 104: Devices, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
104.1 Create partitions and filesystems

• Manage MBR partition tables
• Use various mkfs commands to create various filesystems such as:
o ext2/ext3/ext4
o XFS
o VFAT
• Awareness of ReiserFS and Btrfs
• Basic knowledge of gdisk and parted with GPT

Terms and Utilities:

• fdisk
• gdisk
• parted
• mkfs
• mkswap

104.2 Maintain the integrity of filesystems

• Verify the integrity of filesystems
• Monitor free space and inodes
• Repair simple filesystem problems

Terms and Utilities:

• du
• df
• fsck
• e2fsck
• mke2fs
• debugfs
• dumpe2fs
• tune2fs
• XFS tools (such as xfs_metadump and xfs_info)

104.3 Control mounting and unmounting of filesystems

• Manually mount and unmount filesystems
• Configure filesystem mounting on bootup
• Configure user mountable removable filesystems

Terms and Utilities:

• /etc/fstab
• /media/
• mount
• umount

104.4 Manage disk quotas

• Set up a disk quota for a filesystem
• Edit, check and generate user quota reports

Terms and Utilities:

• quota
• edquota
• repquota
• quotaon

104.5 Manage file permissions and ownership

• Manage access permissions on regular and special files as well as directories
• Use access modes such as suid, sgid and the sticky bit to maintain security
• Know how to change the file creation mask
• Use the group field to grant file access to group members

Terms and Utilities:

• chmod
• umask
• chown
• chgrp

104.6 Create and change hard and symbolic links

• Create links
• Identify hard and/or soft links
• Copying versus linking files
• Use links to support system administration tasks

Terms and Utilities:

• ln
• ls

104.7 Find system files and place files in the correct location

• Understand the correct locations of files under the FHS
• Find files and commands on a Linux system
• Know the location and purpose of important file and directories as defined in the FHS

Terms and Utilities:

• find
• locate
• updatedb
• whereis
• which
• type
• /etc/updatedb.conf

LPIC-1 Exam 102

Topic 105: Shells, Scripting and Data Management
105.1 Customize and use the shell environment

• Set environment variables (e.g. PATH) at login or when spawning a new shell
• Write Bash functions for frequently used sequences of commands
• Maintain skeleton directories for new user accounts
• Set command search path with the proper directory

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

• .
• source
• /etc/bash.bashrc
• /etc/profile
• env
• export
• set
• unset
• ~/.bash_profile
• ~/.bash_login
• ~/.profile
• ~/.bashrc
• ~/.bash_logout
• function
• alias
• lists
105.2 Customize or write simple scripts

• Use standard sh syntax (loops, tests)
• Use command substitution
• Test return values for success or failure or other information provided by a command
• Perform conditional mailing to the superuser
• Correctly select the script interpreter through the shebang (#!) line
• Manage the location, ownership, execution and suid-rights of scripts

Terms and Utilities:

• for
• while
• test
• if
• read
• seq
• exec

105.3 SQL data management

• Use of basic SQL commands
• Perform basic data manipulation

Terms and Utilities:

• insert
• update
• select
• delete
• from
• where
• group by
• order by
• join

Topic 106: User Interfaces and Desktops
106.1 Install and configure X11

• Verify that the video card and monitor are supported by an X server
• Awareness of the X font server
• Basic understanding and knowledge of the X Window configuration file

Terms and Utilities:

• /etc/X11/xorg.conf
• xhost
• DISPLAY
• xwininfo
• xdpyinfo
• X

106.2 Setup a display manager

• Basic configuration of LightDM
• Turn the display manager on or off
• Change the display manager greeting
• Awareness of XDM, KDM and GDM

Terms and Utilities:

• lightdm
• /etc/lightdm/

106.3 Accessibility

• Basic knowledge of keyboard accessibility settings (AccessX)
• Basic knowledge of visual settings and themes
• Basic knowledge of assistive technology (ATs)

Terms and Utilities:

• Sticky/Repeat Keys
• Slow/Bounce/Toggle Keys
• Mouse Keys
• High Contrast/Large Print Desktop Themes
• Screen Reader
• Braille Display
• Screen Magnifier
• On-Screen Keyboard
• Gestures (used at login, for example GDM)
• Orca
• GOK
• emacspeak

Topic 107: Administrative Tasks
107.1 Manage user and group accounts and related system files

• Add, modify and remove users and groups
• Manage user/group info in password/group databases
• Create and manage special purpose and limited accounts

Terms and Utilities:

• /etc/passwd
• /etc/shadow
• /etc/group
• /etc/skel/
• chage
• getent
• groupadd
• groupdel
• groupmod
• passwd
• useradd
• userdel
• usermod

107.2 Automate system administration tasks by scheduling jobs

• Manage cron and at jobs
• Configure user access to cron and at services
• Configure anacron

Terms and Utilities:

• /etc/cron.{d,daily,hourly,monthly,weekly}/
• /etc/at.deny
• /etc/at.allow
• /etc/crontab
• /etc/cron.allow
• /etc/cron.deny
• /var/spool/cron/
• crontab
• at
• atq
• atrm
• anacron
• /etc/anacrontab

107.3 Localisation and internationalisation

• Configure locale settings and environment variables
• Configure timezone settings and environment variables

Terms and Utilities:

• /etc/timezone
• /etc/localtime
• /usr/share/zoneinfo/
• LC_*
• LC_ALL
• LANG
• TZ
• /usr/bin/locale
• tzselect
• timedatectl
• date
• iconv
• UTF-8
• ISO-8859
• ASCII
• Unicode

Topic 108: Essential System Services
108.1 Maintain system time

• Set the system date and time
• Set the hardware clock to the correct time in UTC
• Configure the correct timezone
• Basic NTP configuration
• Knowledge of using the pool.ntp.org service
• Awareness of the ntpq command

Terms and Utilities:

• /usr/share/zoneinfo/
• /etc/timezone
• /etc/localtime
• /etc/ntp.conf
• date
• hwclock
• ntpd
• ntpdate
• pool.ntp.org

108.2 System logging

• Configuration of the syslog daemon
• Understanding of standard facilities, priorities and actions
• Configuration of logrotate
• Awareness of rsyslog and syslog-ng

Terms and Utilities:

• syslog.conf
• syslogd
• klogd
• /var/log/
• logger
• logrotate
• /etc/logrotate.conf
• /etc/logrotate.d/
• journalctl
• /etc/systemd/journald.conf
• /var/log/journal/

108.3 Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) basics

• Create e-mail aliases
• Configure e-mail forwarding
• Knowledge of commonly available MTA programs (postfix, sendmail, qmail, exim) (no configuration)

Terms and Utilities:

• ~/.forward
• sendmail emulation layer commands
• newaliases
• mail
• mailq
• postfix
• sendmail
• exim
• qmail
• ~/.forward
• sendmail emulation layer commands
• newaliases

108.4 Manage printers and printing

• Basic CUPS configuration (for local and remote printers)
• Manage user print queues
• Troubleshoot general printing problems
• Add and remove jobs from configured printer queues

Terms and Utilities:

• CUPS configuration files, tools and utilities
• /etc/cups/
• lpd legacy interface (lpr, lprm, lpq)

Topic 109: Networking Fundamentals
109.1 Fundamentals of internet protocols

• Demonstrate an understanding of network masks and CIDR notation
• Knowledge of the differences between private and public “dotted quad” IP addresses
• Knowledge about common TCP and UDP ports and services (20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 53, 80, 110, 123, 139, 143, 161, 162, 389, 443, 465, 514, 636, 993, 995)
• Knowledge about the differences and major features of UDP, TCP and ICMP
• Knowledge of the major differences between IPv4 and IPv6
• Knowledge of the basic features of IPv6

Terms and Utilities:

• /etc/services
• IPv4, IPv6
• Subnetting
• TCP, UDP, ICMP

109.2 Basic network configuration

• Manually and automatically configure network interfaces
• Basic TCP/IP host configuration
• Setting a default route

Terms and Utilities:

• /etc/hostname
• /etc/hosts
• /etc/nsswitch.conf
• ifconfig
• ifup
• ifdown
• ip
• route
• ping

109.3 Basic network troubleshooting

• Manually and automatically configure network interfaces and routing tables to include adding, starting, stopping, restarting, deleting or reconfiguring network interfaces
• Change, view, or configure the routing table and correct an improperly set default route manually
• Debug problems associated with the network configuration

Terms and Utilities:

• ifconfig
• ip
• ifup
• ifdown
• route
• host
• hostname
• dig
• netstat
• ping
• ping6
• traceroute
• traceroute6
• tracepath
• tracepath6
• netcat

109.4 Configure client side DNS

• Query remote DNS servers
• Configure local name resolution and use remote DNS servers
• Modify the order in which name resolution is done

Terms and Utilities:

• /etc/hosts
• /etc/resolv.conf
• /etc/nsswitch.conf
• host
• dig
• getent

Topic 110: Security
110.1 Perform security administration tasks

• Audit a system to find files with the suid/sgid bit set
• Set or change user passwords and password aging information
• Being able to use nmap and netstat to discover open ports on a system
• Set up limits on user logins, processes and memory usage
• Determine which users have logged in to the system or are currently logged in
• Basic sudo configuration and usage

Terms and Utilities:

• find
• passwd
• fuser
• lsof
• nmap
• chage
• netstat
• sudo
• /etc/sudoers
• su
• usermod
• ulimit
• who, w, last

110.2 Setup host security

• Awareness of shadow passwords and how they work
• Turn off network services not in use
• Understand the role of TCP wrappers
Terms and Utilities:

• /etc/nologin
• /etc/passwd
• /etc/shadow
• /etc/xinetd.d/
• /etc/xinetd.conf
• /etc/inetd.d/
• /etc/inetd.conf
• /etc/inittab
• /etc/init.d/
• /etc/hosts.allow
• /etc/hosts.deny

110.3 Securing data with encryption

• Perform basic OpenSSH 2 client configuration and usage
• Understand the role of OpenSSH 2 server host keys
• Perform basic GnuPG configuration, usage and revocation
• Understand SSH port tunnels (including X11 tunnels)

Terms and Utilities:

• ssh
• ssh-keygen
• ssh-agent
• ssh-add
• ~/.ssh/id_rsa and id_rsa.pub
• ~/.ssh/id_dsa and id_dsa.pub
• /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key and ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
• /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key and ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
• ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
• ssh_known_hosts
• gpg
• ~/.gnupg/

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